Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Eradicate Alien Mussels in Lake St. Clair

Let’s annihilate zebra and quagga mussels in Lake St. Clair.

It is believed that zebra mussels traveled from the Black Sea region to the Great Lakes in the ballast water of ships.  The mussels were found in Lake St. Clair in 1988 and spread throughout the Great Lakes, the Mississippi Valley and eventually most of the contiguous United States.

 Quagga mussels, cousins of the zebra, were first seen in the Erie Canal in 1989, although not correctly identified until 1991.

Both species have dramatically altered the ecosystems where they have established themselves. Both are prolific and have fewer natural predators in North America than in Europe.  Zebras in particular like to settle together in large numbers on hard surfaces like native clams and mussels, killing them, and on/in man made objects such as the water intake pipes of power plants and municipal water facilities, clogging them.

Before the arrival of zebra mussels, there were approximately 40 species of native mussels in the Detroit River and approximately 20 in Lake St. Clair. Nalepa et al. (1996) collected Unionidae [native mussels] from 29 sites in Lake St. Clair in 1986 (before the first zebra mussels were found), 1990, 1992, and 1994. They collected 281 (18 species), 248 (17 species), 99 (12 species), and 6 (5 species) native mussels in the four years, respectively, which shows the devastating impact to native mussels.
Seven years ago, while researching zebras, I found that Dr. Daniel Molloy in 2001 had discovered that a common bacterium, pseudomonas fluorescens strain CLO145, is lethal to the zebra, but otherwise harmless.

In May, 2008, I passed the story along to Michigan Public Radio, which broadcast an interview with Dr. Molloy.

Subsequently, Molloy arranged for Marrone Bio Innovations in California to develop a commercial product.  Marrone named the product Zequanox and conducted further trials.  

With the assistance of U.S. Senator Debbie Stabenow, Marrone built a production facility in Bangor, Michigan.

On November 30, 2010, I sent the following to Chuck Frederick, Editor of the Duluth News Tribune, who published this as a letter to the editor:

Mr. Frederick:

On Monday, November 29, 2010, the News Tribune ran an article about the possibility that zebra and quagga mussels were carriers of the botulism that is killing thousands of water birds in the Great Lakes region each year.

Happily, a means of controlling the invasive mussels may be at hand.

About 10 years ago, Dr. Daniel Molloy of the New York State Museum discovered a mutation of a common bacterium that kills zebra and quagga mussels but is harmless to other organisms.

Commercial production of the biopesticide was problematic because the bacteria had a short shelf life. That problem was overcome, but widespread, open-water application was thought not to be effective.

Trials to confirm the specific effect of the bacterium on the alien mussels were successful. In addition, it was discovered that dead bacteria were just as lethal as live ones. As a result, Molloy and others have concluded that toxins in the bacteria, not infection, kill the mussels, lowering even more the potential risk to other species.  It is anticipated now that open-water application will be effective.

The biopesticide is expected to be available in commercial quantities sometime in 2011.

Jim Lang

After my letter was published, some citizen groups in Minnesota expressed interest in Zequanox. Studies were begun.

(Updated Nov. 5, 2014) -- Field testing wrapped up in late October, and the USGS is beginning to analyze the data...The USGS received a grant from the state of Minnesota to study the treatment. After testing it in a lab environment in northwestern Minnesota last year [2013], the USGS has received appropriate permission from all state and federal agencies to apply an experimental treatment of Zequanox in Lake Minnetonka.

One recent experiment seems to have turned out well.

Initial searches indicate a three-step treatment of Christmas Lake in Shorewood for zebra mussels has been effective, according to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources…

Zequanox, a natural substance highly selective to zebra and quagga mussels, was first applied to the treatment area in September [2014]. That application was followed by a [toxic] copper treatment of EarthTec QZ in October and November. In December, a contractor working with the DNR injected 1,000 pounds of [toxic] potassium chloride (potash) under the ice near the public boat access. It was only the third time potash was used for zebra mussel control in the United States. The applications of potash and EarthTec QZ were experimental off-label uses requiring special emergency permission…

Why don’t we muster state and federal resources to attack invasive zebra and quagga mussels in Lake St. Clair?

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Light Your House From Your Water Main

Fresh water drawn by gravity through municipal pipes can produce electricity. Simply replace a portion of conventional pipeline with a section containing inline turbines which power generators outside.  It’s been done in Riverside, California and Portland, Oregon.  

The system is produced by Lucid Energy.  Portland expects to generate 1,100 megawatt hours of electricity annually, enough to supply 150 homes.  Smaller systems for home use are on the market, also.

A diagram of the system (Image: Lucid Energy)

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Citizens Should Monitor Silt Runoff Themselves

Last spring, I did a photo survey of construction sites in a half dozen southeastern Oakland County communities.  I found a high proportion of sites that showed a lack of adequate silt runoff prevention.  In most instances, properly installed silt fence would have sufficed.  There were incontrovertible signs of heavy silt runoff from recent rains into storm drains.

A week ago, I did a quick inspection of eight new construction sites in Royal Oak.  The proportion with inadequate erosion controls was as great as the year before, perhaps greater.

Erosion management inspections are conducted by way of two types of legislation.  Municipalities that have stringent runoff prevention ordinances under state guidelines are authorized to carry out their own inspections.  Such communities are called Municipal Enforcement Agencies (MEAs). Examples are Birmingham and Troy.

Construction sites in cities, townships and villages that don’t have such runoff control ordinances of their own are inspected by county drain or water resources commissioners under state standards. These are referred to as County Enforcement Agencies (CEAs).

The Oakland County Water Resources Commissioner (OCWRC) is a CEA.  It has several erosion control inspectors.  Each is assigned to monitor specific communities.  

Silt runoff into storm drains is costly, clogging sewers and interfering with treatment/retention basins and wastewater treatment plants.  Furthermore, during rainstorms that overwhelm combined (storm and household waste) sewer systems, the polluted overflow, including silt runoff, enters our lakes and streams untreated or only partially treated.  

Anyone who observes construction sites or other areas where the soil has been disturbed and from which silt is or has been running into storm drains or natural bodies of water should report the situation to local officials such as the mayor, township supervisor, village president, council member or city manager, as well as the OCWRC and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ).

OCWRC inspectors and their areas of responsibility appear in the map above and at the following webpage.

Friday, April 10, 2015

State Revolving Fund; Septic Systems; Lapeer Chooses GLWA

Clean Water Revolving Fund:

Michigan's Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund, better known as the State Revolving Fund (SRF), is a low-interest loan (2.5% for fiscal year 2015) financing program that assists qualified local municipalities with the construction of needed water pollution control facilities.

Michigan enacted 1988 PA 317, The Clean Water Assistance Act, to establish the SRF which is now codified as Part 53, 1994 PA 451, of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. It is anticipated that both carry-over and new funding will be made available to subsidize Green Projects in fiscal year 2016. If you have projects with components that address green infrastructure, water or energy efficiency improvements, or other environmentally innovative activities, project plans will need to be submitted by July 1, 2015.

Please refer to the Green Project Reserve Guidance below for further information. If you are interested in applying for an SRF loan, a final project plan must be submitted or postmarked on or before July 1 to be considered for funding in the next fiscal year. As of October 1, 2014, the SRF program has provided low interest loans for 523 projects, totaling $4.2 billion…

Webinar on septic systems announced:

MSU Extension is hosting a live webinar, "Septic Systems: Insight Into Your Onsite System" on Monday, April 20 from 1:30-3:30 pm. This program will cover what a septic system is, how it works, best management practices to protect the system and human health, how to identify trouble in the system and steps to take if a problem occurs.
The live webinar will include presentations by the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and  Macomb County Health Department Sanitarian Supervisor with 29 years of septic and well experience.  The presentations will be followed by a live question and answer session via the chat box.
To join this FREE webinar, you must pre-register at . You will receive a confirmation email upon registration and log in instruction at least 48 hours prior to the webinar.
Deadline to register is Friday, April 17, 2015.

Lapeer favors GLWA:  

According to the Lapeer County Press, Lapeer City Council voted earlier this week to negotiate a long term water deal with the Great Lakes Water Authority (GLWA), instead of the new Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA), whose pipeline from Lake Huron to Genesee County is being installed presently.  GLWA is the successor of the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD), which lost a number of its northern wholesale customers over the past two years in anticipation of KWA.

Monday, March 23, 2015

Is GLWA Gag Order Constitutional?

For most purposes, Detroit’s historic bankruptcy (Case #13-53846) is over. However, on February 6, 2015, Bankruptcy Judge Steven Rhodes extended his Mediation Order (Docket #8468) of November 26, 2014, providing for negotiations concerning the lease of certain water treatment facilities from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department by a newly created regional entity, the Great Lakes Water Authority.

Under the supervision of U.S. District Judge Sean Cox as mediator, representatives of the City of Detroit and the several counties that comprise the new authority will review anticipated costs and revenues and discuss the financial viability of the proposed lease.

In his Mediation Confidentiality Order (Docket #9176) of February 6, 2015, Judge Rhodes ordered that discussions and documents related to the lease negotiations shall be privileged and confidential. This is commonly referred to as a gag order.

For background, note that, concerning an overly broad, court-imposed gag order following the criminal indictment of former Massey Energy CEO Don Blankenship, the Corporate Crime Reporter said (November 18, 2014), “University [of] California Irvine Law Professor Erwin Chemerinsky has written on gag orders, including a seminal 1997 law review article…”

In the 1997 piece, [now Dean] Chemerinsky reminded us that, in Nebraska Press Association, 427 U.S. 539 (1976), the Supreme Court forbad gag orders on the press -- gag orders which were intended to thwart prejudicial pretrial publicity.  To get around that decision, trial courts began to impose gag orders on the parties and their attorneys.

Chemerinsky concluded that such orders are virtually always unconstitutional because they are founded on untenable assumptions.

First, it is assumed by judges imposing gag orders that publicity puts a fair outcome at too great a risk. Chemerinsky lists numerous, highly publicized criminal cases wherein defendants were subjected to prejudicial pretrial publicity but were acquitted nonetheless.

Next, even if publicity impairs fairness, it is false to assume that the comments of the parties or their attorneys outside the courtroom to the press or the public cause or exacerbate the impairment. Media frenzy doesn’t depend exclusively or even principally on what parties or counsel say.

In denying media access to the thoughts and opinions of participants, gag orders are likely counterproductive to a fair outcome.  That is to say, media are forced to rely on inferior sources of information, to which parties and counsel can’t respond, eroding the prospect of fairness even further.

The third untenable assumption is that, even if you accept that publicity is prejudicial and gag orders on participants make a positive difference, these considerations count more than our rights under the First Amendment.  Gag orders are prior restraints.  They restrict free speech and should be subjected to close, strict scrutiny.

The public has a right to know what is being discussed behind closed doors about a proposed $50 million per year lease that water and sewer ratepayers will be obligated to pay for 40 years.  The GLWA/DWSD gag order is unconscionable, should be challenged in court and, if necessary, taken on appeal.

Tuesday, March 17, 2015

You Have a Right to Know: FOIA and DWSD

Citizens have the right to know what their government is up to.  That includes the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department.  Michigan Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests can be directed to:

LaTanya Whitfield
Office of the General Counsel
City of Detroit-Water and Sewerage Department
735 Randolph Street
Detroit, MI 48226
Office: 313-964-9034
Fax: 313-842-6510

State and federal FOIA inquiries have a better chance of success when the request begins on an informed and rational footing.  If new to the process, it helps immensely to read a summary of the statute.  

In Michigan, the Attorney General’s office has posted a summary online.   
In other states, a Google search or a stop at your local library should produce a useful document. To understand the federal FOIA process, a good place to start is  -- or your public or school library.
Before you embark on the formal FOIA process, you may be able to save time by making your request informally, either in person or by phone. Can’t hurt to try. And remember, you don’t have to give a reason why you want a particular record.

Although simplicity of application is usually a stated goal of FOIA legislation, you should take that ideal with a grain of salt.  Be as explicit about the subject of your inquiry as you can.  Details specifying who, where, what, why, when and how should be considered, but don’t overdo it.  Erroneous or superfluous details might throw the government searcher off the track.  Look for examples of successful FOIA request letters. Revise them to suit your circumstances.

I can’t emphasize too much the importance of staying on an even keel. Pursuing a FOIA disclosure while angry or frustrated can be self-defeating.  The same is true of self-righteousness and indignation.

Give careful consideration to suggestions that may improve your chances of success.  If things don’t go as well or as fast as expected, press for explanations (preferably in writing), but don’t assume that you’re being ignored or misled intentionally or that there is a conspiracy against you.   

The older the information you’re seeking, the longer it may take to recover it, especially if it predates digital storage.  (Indeed, agencies are authorized in some instances to destroy records after a specified period.)

Similar considerations apply to the quantity requested.  The more you ask for, the longer it is likely to take to assemble (and the more it’s going to cost).  Also, if you’ve made some false assumptions about the pertinence of records you seek, you could end up being charged for useless results.

Consider requesting records in smaller, separate batches, one at a time; for example, by calendar quarters instead of years.  This will prevent going too far down the wrong path.  A variation of this approach is to have a group of friends, associates or classmates each make a small request on your behalf.  It may save money, too, because some government agencies don’t charge for small orders.  

Remember, too, you probably have the option to view the requested materials and copy them yourself at a specified agency office.  Usually, this can be done at less cost or even for free.

A denial of your request, in whole or part, generally triggers a right to an administrative appeal, followed by court review, if so desired.  The term “denial” embraces a number of different circumstances, some explicit, some not.  It’s important to learn the various meanings.

Keep in mind the possibility that the information you seek may be found in other places, public or private.  In this day and age, for example, given the interaction between local, state and federal agencies, information originating at one level may very well have been sent to agencies at other levels, all subject to FOIA discovery.  

I can say from personal experience that identical or similar FOIA requests to inter-related agencies at different levels (local, state and federal) will occasionally reveal false or misleading information or omissions in the communications between agencies.

Also, if you suspect and want certified proof that an agency doesn't have a particular record that it might be expected to have, make a FOIA request in order to get written confirmation that the record doesn't exist.

Persistence pays off.  If necessary, there are non-profit, public service organizations that will help you.  At the national level, for example, try the Sunlight Foundation or the Center for Investigative Reporting.

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

DWSD Denies FOIA Request, Elusive O&M Savings, Gag Order

Prior to the Detroit bankruptcy settlement, it was represented that the proposed $50 million annual lease payment for water-related facilities, payable by the new Great Lakes Water Authority (GLWA) to the City of Detroit, would be offset partially by cost savings initiated by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD).

Veolia, the international water management and consulting firm, in a report to DWSD this past December, stated, "...Veolia understands that during the negotiations for the creation of the regional authority, the viability of the Lease charge was based on several sources of funds, including O&M cost savings estimated by DWSD in an amount between $10 million and $20 million annually. The details of these savings estimates were not provided to Veolia and, therefore, were not included in the assessment.” (p.ES-3)

Because parties to the ongoing negotiations concerning the transition from DWSD to GLWA are prohibited by a renewed federal gag order from discussing the details surrounding the lease payment, I submitted a FOIA request to DWSD for copies of exclusively internal records of O&M cost savings in the $10-20 million range, independent of the negotiations.

Last Friday, DWSD denied my request for the reasons that (a) no such record exists,and (b) even if it did exist, its release would be prohibited by the gag order.

It looks to me like DWSD's dissembling continues unabated.  Ironically, media outlets later this month will be celebrating Sunshine Week, extolling the virtues of open government.

I can make a pro forma appeal of the denial to Director McCormick, but we all know how much good that will do.  Sooner or later, somebody in a position of public responsibility will have to challenge in court the gag order and DWSD secrecy and obfuscation.
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